Infusion Pump Uses: Essential Applications in Healthcare and Beyond

by Sara Alvarado

Updated January 8, 2024
Infusion pumps are a critical component in the modern healthcare ecosystem. These complex devices come in different forms depending on usage and patient needs. Increasingly, they are getting widespread adoption and are poised to reach $20.7 billion by 2027. An aging population, growing cases of chronic diseases, and growing applications beyond the healthcare domain are key drivers of this growth.

Infusion Pump Uses : Essential Applications in Healthcare and Beyond

What are infusion pumps?

Infusion pumps are specially designed medical devices that deliver medication, blood products, and nutrients in controlled amounts to a patient via the intravenous (IV), enteral, or epidural routes.
Infusion pumps are operated by trained healthcare professionals and offer considerable benefits compared to manual delivery.

What is an infusion pump used for?

These medical devices are used in hospitals, clinics, and homes to administer medication precisely and consistently to realize desired outcomes as recommended by a healthcare professional.

88.1% of hospitals in the United States have adopted smart infusion pumps - American Society of Health-System Pharmacists

Infusion pumps usage varies depending on factors such as the condition of the patient, and the therapy to be administered usage and can range from:

●Insulin pumps to deliver dosage of insulin for diabetes management

●PCA (Patient-Controlled Analgesia) pumps for pain relief medication

●Chemotherapy pumps for cancer treatment and management.

Infusion Pump Uses : Essential Applications in Healthcare and Beyond

Types of Infusion Pumps and Usage

Infusion pumps can broadly be classified into two: large-volume infusion pumps and low-volume infusion pumps. Modifications are done to meet a particular clinical requirement and state of the patient as follows:

Syringe infusion pumps: This is a small-volume infusion pump, preferred when high precision dosing is required —such as hormones and antibiotics therapy —in small volumes. They are commonly used in pediatric care settings.

Ambulatory infusion pumps: distinguishing features are their portability and battery power allowing for more patient flexibility—more movement doing daily activities— as they receive medication over a specified duration.

Stationary Infusion pumps: commonly placed beside a patient bed when delivering medication or nutrients. They are primarily used by patients—often bedridden — with chronic diseases that need frequent medication. This pump can either be a large-volume infusion pump or a small-volume infusion pump.

Infusion Pump Uses : Essential Applications in Healthcare and Beyond

Infusion Pumps: Components and Functionality


There are three main components of an infusion pump: a fluid reservoir, a pumping mechanism, and a programmable user interface.

●Fluid Reservoir: As the name suggests, the reservoir, holds the fluid— medication, nutrients, etc. — to be infused into the patient. This can either be a syringe, bottle, or specially designed bag.

●Pumping Mechanism: This is a motor-driven system facilitating consistent movement of medication to the patient.

●User Interface: A control panel with a display allows a healthcare professional to program critical parameters, such as infusion rate (ml/hr.), total dosage volume to be infused (ml), etc. Other useful indicators like alarms alert healthcare professionals of potential issues to be addressed.

Infusion Pump Uses : Essential Applications in Healthcare and Beyond

Benefits of Infusion Pumps

Infusion pumps have the following benefits for patients and healthcare professionals:

Enhanced Accuracy: Automation of dosage and infusion rate makes it easy to deliver medication with a high degree of accuracy compared to other means. This makes it ideal for fluid delivery in areas such as anesthesia.

Better patient safety: infusion pumps greatly reduce medication errors—often human— as treatments are customizable and largely automated with a safety system such as alarms. This reduced the probability of adverse events.

Versatility in Application: Infusion pumps are highly versatile and are customizable to deliver a wide array of medications ranging from chemotherapy drugs and antibiotics to painkillers to nutrients.

Reduced workload for healthcare staff: Because of automation, healthcare staff can work with multiple patients concurrently. This free time to focus on other areas of patient care.

Customized to patient needs: Pumps such as patient-controlled Analgesia (PCA) allows the patient to self-administer medication within predefined limits. This is especially important when discomfort occurs within certain specified parameters. This helps in relieving pain timely.

Clinical Applications

Infusion Pump Uses : Essential Applications in Healthcare and Beyond

1.Hospital and Clinical settings


Infusion pumps are primarily used in hospitals and clinics — for critical and noncritical care— to deliver precise medication, fluids, nutrients, etc. for patients in critical care, surgery, labor and delivery, and pain management therapy.

They are particularly vital when there is a need for accurate dosages. A standard hospital has an array of infusion pumps ranging from syringe pumps, enteral feeding pumps, and volumetric pumps for delivering large dosages.

2.Home Infusion Therapy


Infusion therapy is a more flexible —no need for traveling or scheduling — infusion therapy that allows patients to receive infusion and manage their conditions from their homes through pumps such as Ambulatory infusion pumps. Depending on the patient's condition, they can be used to administer chemotherapy and medication management for conditions such as autoimmune diseases, and thyroid eye diseases.

They are typically administered by visiting nurses or other delegated healthcare professionals. Moreover, in a crisis such as a medical emergency, they can be deployed by emergency staff to offer lifesaving or pain management medication.

The main drawback of Home infusion is the likelihood of manual errors primarily due to inadequate training of home care staff that are often delegated this duty in the absence of a home nurse.

Other Uses Beyond Healthcare


Infusion pumps are versatile and as innovation is further enhanced, they are now used in areas beyond healthcare ranging from veterinary medicine for accurate dosage, in industrial processes for accurate addition of chemical additives, and in research and laboratory settings where controlled delivery is paramount.

Infusion Pumps Operating Parameters

Infusion Pumps Operating Parameters

Flow Rate and Dosage:

The flow rate is the speed through which medication is delivered to the patient and is expressed in milliliters per hour (mL/h) or microliters per minute (µL/min). This rate is usually set at the infusion pump to prevent overdose or underdose.

The volume

This is the specified amount of liquid that needs to be delivered to the patient. The volume to be administered depends on the type of disease, patient weight, treatment plan, etc.

Time

Measurement of the approximate duration it will take to successfully infuse a given fluid volume. Measurement is done in minutes or hours.

Other useful considerations include the dosage rate, battery level, alarms, and bolus dosing.
Infusion Pump Uses : Essential Applications in Healthcare and Beyond

Patient Safety and Device Regulation

1.Safety Features and Alarms


By design, Infusion pumps are equipped with numerous protection capabilities. This guarantees that there is not a single factor of failure and whenever there is a failure, the alarm goes off.

The alarm gadget alerts healthcare providers whilst there may be an issue, which include an occlusion in the line, or if the tool has surpassed designated protection limits

2.FDA Regulations and Initiatives


In America, The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) performs a vital function in making sure the safety and effectiveness of infusion pumps. Through rigorous regulations, they've established numerous guidelines tasks to guide manufacturers in designing secure and reliable infusion pumps.

Through projects such as the Infusion Pump Improvement Initiative the FDA regularly updates protocols regulating the design, predictability, consistency, and transparency for manufacturers on how to enforce quality structures and other hazard mitigation tactics.
Moreover, the FDA regularly conducts post-marketplace surveillance to help identify capacity safety issues and whilst set up initiates a consideration to protect patients. This ensures that FDA-permitted infusion pumps adhere to the very best protection standards viable.

Common Infusion Pump Problems


Some of the common infusion pump problems causing performance issues can include:

1.Flow rate irregularities: These are often caused by blockages or kinks in the tubing. This is a problem easy to troubleshoot and regular maintenance can clear this issue.

2.Alarm errors: problems can range from the alarm failing to generate an audible alarm or alarm going off without a clear explanation. Possible causes of this can range from software issues, low battery, or incorrect settings.

3.Brocken components: caused by mechanical failures such as breakages results from falls, and misalignment of tubing the causes stress to the pump door.

4.Calibration challenges: This can result from manufacturing defaults, and wear and tear due to repeated usage.

5.Battery failure: this can be caused by design failure that causes the battery to overheat or failure to replace the battery during routine maintenance.

Autoinfu infusion pump

Infusion Pump Selection and Usage

In hospital environments, due multiplicity of medical needs, there is a need to have a wide array of infusion pumps. For example, for patients suffering from chronic pain, using a patient-controlled infusion pump, allows for more flexibility for the patient to administer immediate medication such as pain relief medication within a prescribed limit.

A suitable example of a patient-controlled infusion pump is the Intelligent Infusion Pump. Equipped with intelligence software program solutions, it ensures the right utilization in high-hazard environments like in critical care.

Ambulatory infusion pump allows for flexibility especially when they need to continuously need to use medication while doing other stuff. They can be used in a hospital setting or at home. A good example of such a pump is one used for continuous regional analgesia, like this highlighted in this study.

Some key factors to consider when selecting an Ambulatory pump include:

1.The Delivery rate accuracy: the pump should provide consistency and accuracy, as highlighted in this research.

2.Reliability: the pump should always be reliable when used, such as those reviewed in this systematic study.

3.Size and weight: pumps should not burden the patient ensuring that they can do other activities.
Ease of operation: A User-friendly pump is one with a sample interface that can easily be interpreted and taught to among others, home care providers.

User Training and Awareness

icu infusion pumps

As part of standard medical best practices, continuous and regular education of health care providers should be the norm. This minimizes potential errors of omission and commission and ultimately improves the patient outcome. Areas where training should focus include:

1.How to correctively interpret a device’s function and features

2.Correctly setting up an infusion pump and programming

3.Alarm interpretation, for example, what does a high alarm sound like?

4.Patient safety measures and procedures, before, during, and after the use of the pump

5.Common Troubleshooting techniques

6.Routine maintenance such as cleaning, software updates, etc.

7.How to prevent common infusion pump errors such as dosage errors, ignored alarms, etc.

Moreover, healthcare organizations should strive to create a culture that assures psychological safety and strict adherence to safety protocols. When this is adhered it improves the outcome of a patient experience and outcome.

Bottom line

Infusion pumps are an essential component in improving a patient’s outcomes by delivering medications and other fluids safely and with precision. As medical care embraces novel approaches such as the use of A.I, there is no doubt that infusion pumps will ride on this ushering in an era where safety, precision and personalization become the norm.
Article by
Sara Alvarado
Greetings, I'm Sara, a dedicated nurse and a proud contributor to the AutoInfu blog. With my firsthand experience in the world of infusion pumps, I'm here to provide you with the latest insights, expert advice, and essential updates to ensure you stay informed about the infusion pump industry.

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